How to Use 16×2 LCD Display with Arduino without I2C


In this tutorial we Learn How to Use 16×2 LCD Display with Arduino without I2C, In the realm of electronic displays, the 16×2 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) holds a prominent position as a versatile and widely used component. With its ability to showcase alphanumeric characters and symbols, this display module offers an intuitive visual interface for various applications. In this article, we will delve into the workings of the 16×2 LCD display, its specifications, key features, and explore the diverse range of possibilities it presents in electronic design.

Hardware Required

You will require the following Hardware Components for interfacing the 16×2 LCD Display with Arduino.

Components#Buy From Amazon
Arduino UNO1Buy Now
16×2 LCD Display1Buy Now
Potentiometer 10KΩ1Buy Now
Jumper WiresFewBuy Now
Breadboard1Buy Now

What is the Module?

The 16×2 LCD display is a text-based display module that consists of 16 columns and 2 rows, allowing for the presentation of up to 32 characters at a time. Each character is formed by a combination of pixel patterns within the display’s grid. This module is commonly interfaced with microcontrollers, such as Arduino boards, to create interactive and informative visual displays.


The 16×2 LCD display typically possesses the following specifications:

  1. Display size: The module features 16 columns and 2 rows, enabling the display of up to 32 characters.
  2. Character set: It supports a predefined character set, including letters, numbers, symbols, and special characters.
  3. Backlight option: Many 16×2 LCD displays come with an integrated backlight, enhancing visibility in low-light conditions.
  4. Communication interface: It can be connected to a microcontroller using various communication protocols, such as the 4-bit or 8-bit parallel interface.

Key Features

  1. Versatile character display: The 16×2 LCD module enables the display of both alphanumeric characters and symbols, offering flexibility in presenting information.
  2. Adjustable contrast: The display allows for adjusting the contrast level, ensuring optimal readability in different lighting conditions.
  3. Simple interface: It features a straightforward pin configuration and communication protocol, making it easy to interface with microcontrollers.
  4. Custom characters: The module allows for creating custom characters, enabling the display of personalized symbols or graphics.
  5. Low power consumption: The LCD display is designed to consume minimal power, making it suitable for energy-efficient applications.



Pin Configuration of 16×2 LCD

Pin No:Pin Name:Description
1Vss (Ground)Ground pin connected to system ground
2Vdd (+5 Volt)Powers the LCD with +5V (4.7V – 5.3V)
3VE (Contrast V)Decides the contrast level of display. Grounded to get maximum contrast.
4Register SelectConnected to Microcontroller to shift between command/data register
5Read/WriteUsed to read or write data. Normally grounded to write data to LCD
6EnableConnected to Microcontroller Pin and toggled between 1 and 0 for data acknowledgment
7Data Pin 0  Data pins 0 to 7 form an 8-bit data line. They can be connected to Microcontroller to send 8-bit data. These LCD’s can also operate on the 4-bit mode in such case Data pins 4,5,6 and 7 will be left free.
8Data Pin 1
9Data Pin 2
10Data Pin 3
11Data Pin 4
12Data Pin 5
13Data Pin 6
14Data Pin 7
15LED PositiveBacklight LED pin-positive terminal
16LED NegativeBacklight LED pin negative terminal

Circuit Diagram

The following circuit shows you the connection of the How to Use 16×2 LCD Display with Arduino without I2C Please make the connection carefully


Working Explanation

The 16×2 LCD display operates by sending commands and data from a microcontroller to the display module. The microcontroller controls the display by sending specific instructions to set the cursor position, display characters, or adjust the contrast. The display utilizes liquid crystal technology, where electrical signals control the alignment of liquid crystals to form characters and patterns on the screen. The backlight, if available, enhances the visibility of the displayed content.

Installing Arduino IDE Software

First, you will require to Download the updated version of Arduino IDE Software and Install it on your PC or laptop. if you Learn How to install the Arduino step-by-step guide then click on how to install Arduino Button given Blow

Installing Libraries

Now when you are Ready to upload the code, to the Arduino Board you will need first to add the Following Libraries in Arduino, If you Learn How to add the library in the Arduino step-by-step guide click on how to install the library Button given Blow


//For more Projects:

//Include LCD library
#include <LiquidCrystal.h>

// initialize the library with the numbers of the interface pins
LiquidCrystal lcd(12, 11, 5, 4, 3, 2);

void setup() {
  // set up the LCD's number of columns and rows: 
  lcd.begin(16, 2);
  // Print a message to the LCD.
  lcd.print("Hello World!");

void loop() {
  // set the cursor to column 0, line 1
  // (note: line 1 is the second row, since counting begins with 0):
  lcd.setCursor(0, 1);
  //Print a message to second line of LCD


The versatility of the 16×2 LCD display opens up a wide range of applications, including:

  1. Embedded systems: It is commonly used in embedded systems to provide textual information and user interfaces for devices like electronic appliances or control panels.
  2. Data logging and monitoring: The display can be integrated into data loggers or monitoring systems to present real-time data or system parameters.
  3. Menus and user prompts: It can serve as a menu navigation system, displaying options and guiding users through a sequence of actions.
  4. IoT projects: The display module finds applications in Internet of Things (IoT) projects, where it can present sensor data or status information.
  5. Educational tools: The 16×2 LCD display is an invaluable tool for teaching electronics and programming concepts, enabling learners to create interactive visual outputs.


The 16×2 LCD display offers a versatile and intuitive means of displaying alphanumeric characters and symbols in electronic projects. Its compact size, adjustable contrast, and straightforward interface make it a popular choice among hobbyists, students, and professionals alike. By understanding its specifications, key features, and applications, you can unlock the full potential of this component and leverage its visual capabilities to enhance your electronic designs and create engaging user interfaces.

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